by Meg Floyd
Enjoy Martin’s third video on Italian rapier, covering tempo and distance.
by Meg Floyd
Enjoy Martin’s third video on Italian rapier, covering tempo and distance.
by Peter Smallridge
Richard Marsden, former
President Tyrant of the HEMA Alliance, founder of the Phoenix Society of Historical Swordsmanship, etc., has a problem. Historical European Martial Arts is a hobby where we work to resurrect dead martial arts from the recorded systems. Many such systems have substantial details recorded, from the interrelated works of the Liechtenauer tradition over several centuries to the detailed textbooks of Italian rapier. Many HEMA-ists prefer to work from the most substantial sources, with the most information, but others prefer to work from more limited sources, preferring the harder challenge of interpreting unique systems with fewer details in the explanation. I.33, I’m looking at you here. Marsden has gone a step beyond merely working on a highly obscure manuscript, and tackled a historical martial art for which there is no treatise, namely Polish saber fencing during the 17th Century.
It’s understandable why he’d want to. Without regurgitating the whole history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 17th Century, they were Interesting Times. Invasions, civil wars, and a near-constant background level of lesser violence. The szabla came to full popularity, and the Polish style of saber-fencing was recognized as distinct. The szabla was the weapon of the Szlachta nobles, whose Sarmatism fashion not only acknowledged mythologized origins, but reflected the East-meets-West nature of Poland at the time.
I’ve always considered the Historical in HEMA to be defined as something similar to “this martial art not only existed in history, but is well enough documented that we have sufficient detail of the system to reconstruct it.” Others have previously attempted similar feats to Marsden, creating their own arts to fit historical but scantly-recorded martial arts such as Viking Combat. I’m not sure I could call it strictly HEMA. By Chidester’s typology, it’s a Type III – evidenced but not really detailed. On the other hand, the line between reconstruction and speculation is blurry. I’ve worked with the Basingstoke Bartitsu Irregulars (re)constructing boxing, ju-jitsu, cane etc. sub-systems for Bartitsu – where we don’t have substantial information on the full details of what the Bartitsu Club trained c.1900, but we have detailed manuals from similar times, and often with direct linkage to the club. Obviously, we feel these can justifiably be used to go beyond Barton-Wright’s own recorded techniques to flesh out a fuller system.
How much speculation is too much to be HEMA? Marsden has certainly had to speculate, in the absence of any surviving manual. His sources, though, seem fairly comprehensive, to my inexpert eye; there may well be sources out there that have yet to be touched by historians though (or at least English-language history) – perhaps in half a dozen years, some Polish equivalent of the Lost Second Book of Giganti will surface from an archive. Marsden first lays out the background of Polish 17th century saber and its historical and cultural context. Then he systematically lays out his evidence – here his academic background is clear. I’d read many of them before, both contemporary accounts like Jan Chryzostom Pasek’s memoirs and indirect but suggestive sources such as Starzewski’s 19th century writings on 17th century saber, and Meyer’s 16th century dussack chapter. The “closest” source may be from Henning’s 1658 work on “Cut-Fencing”, which is not only temporally correct but addresses the Polish style of saber fighting from the point of view of a German prospective opponent, albeit briefly. It’s good to see the relevant sections reproduced in full for convenient reference.
With the foundations justifying his interpretation laid out, approximately 120 of the book’s 240-odd pages are then devoted to interpretation. I’m not really fluent in saber, but it all seems sound enough. Certainly Marsden’s vision is interestingly distinct from the 19th century military styles I’ve seen elsewhere. The explanations are excellent; they’re clear and well-structured, with superb full-colour photography illustrating them. There’s also a refreshing honesty as Marsden confesses the speculative interpretation of many of the techniques and their support. He also gives a separate section for dussack techniques which may be applicable. The interpretation section is comprehensive enough to equip the reader to become a well-rounded szabla fencer, without wasting space giving repetitive exercises or variations of combination cuts.
Finally, the book is completed by appendices on equipment for practice, glossaries, acknowledgements, a bibliography and guide to further resources, and, helpfully for monolingual readers, a guide to pronouncing Polish terms.
This is HEMA with a slightly different sense of Historical to that which I’m used to insisting on. It’s moved beyond the recreation of one source system to establishing a system implied or at least supported by many sources. Marsden has gone from coloring inside the lines to drawing new line-work to fill gaps of a sketch. As mentioned, I’m generally hostile to too much guesswork in my HEMA. I accuse it of leading to half-arsed theories about how cross-guards protect the hand against punching shields rather than the opponent’s blade, the specialized role of claymores for breaking pike shafts or any number of glorious reenactor-isms, which don’t really hold up to common sense let alone have evidence to support them. This is different. Marsden supports his suppositions with sources and cites his conjectures with comparison. He has produced something which certainly goes beyond HEMA in the strictest sense, but perhaps it’s a transcendence rather than a transgression. In trying to provide a martial art that can be practiced, Marsden has produced a work of scholarship.
The survival or otherwise of historical source-material is undeniably a matter of history itself. The record left us by the past is fragmentary, and the process of selection has not always been arbitrary. But historians have always known this, and have always thought it important to situate the surviving fragments in a broader context created by other remaining fragments, thus gaining some sense of the whole even where significant parts of it are missing. […] The fragmentary nature of the traces left to us by the past is thus no reason for supposing that historians’ imagination is entirely unfettered when it comes to reconstructing it.
Richard J Evans, In Defence of History (1997) pp.88-9.
by Piermarco Terminiello
Review: Lessons on the Thrust: An English Translation of Jeann Daniel L’Ange’s “Deutliche und Gründliche Erklärung der Aderlichen und Ritterlichen Freyen Fecht-Kunst” – Translated by Reinier Van Noort
The 1664 rapier treatise of Jéann Daniel L’Ange had long intrigued me.
The plates depict an Italianate method of fencing, with a simple cross-hilted sword, and interesting plays including some rather brutal grappling.
But not reading German, looking at the plates was as far as I could get. Until the intrepid Reinier Van Noort, current holder of the Best Researcher title from HROARR HEMA Scholar awards, presented us with a full modern English translation.
by Meg Floyd
The translation of the once-lost Gladiatoria manual found in New Haven, CT has been completed by researchers Dierk Hagedorn and Bart Walczak. The new translation is bilingual (English and German), 390 pages long, and will be available from Free Lance Academy Press.
In his own words on Facebook, Hagedorn announced, “Dear friends of the Historical Martial Arts, I am more than happy that finally, after more than five years, the project I worked on together with Bart Walczak has finally reached a happy ending: Yesterday I received the first copies of the Gladiatoria book we put so much effort into. It is an edition about the Gladiatoria manuscript from New Haven, Connecticut, that once was believebd to be irretrievably lost in WW II. Luckily, it has resurfaced, and now it’s here for everybody to own. Our book has become a vast volume, 390 pages, with articles by Bart, Daniel Jaquet and yours truly; with forewords by Hans-Peter Hils and Sydney Anglo. The volume is entirely bilingual, both English and German. Apart from the articles, the main part is of course about the manuscript itself, with full colour reproductions and an exact transcription plus translations into English and German. Don’t hesitate to visit my publisher’s website at https://www.vs-books.de/shop/details.php?id=933185&kategorie=135&main_kat=1&start=0&nr
Quite soon, the good people at Freelance Academy Press will distribute this volume too.
Ladies and gentlemen, I am still excited to hold this very heavy book in my hands; and I sincerely do hope that you will enjoy it as much as I do. I believe five years of work have resulted in a very fine volume I am sure you will hold dear.
Nu merck das stuck.”
by Meg Floyd
This past month, HEMA’s unofficial manual database Wiktenauer which is directed by Michael Chidester and funded by the American umbrella organization, the HEMA Alliance, hosted its annual fundraiser to try to cover its server costs. The goal for this year was to raise $1500, but the community blew the fundraiser out of the water, raising $22,710 to not only cover the site’s server costs, but also to acquire scans of several new manuals for the database. The list of manuals acquired from this year’s fundraiser will include:
– The Nuremberg (“Döbringer”) Hausbuch (MS. 3227a)
– Girolamo Cavalcabo’s original Italian manuscript (Ms. Italien 1527)
– 1580 English translation of Paride del Pozzo (Ms. V.b.104)
– The Jud Lew manuscript (Cod. I.6.4º.3)
– Giovanni Antonio Lovino’s manuscript (Ms. Italien 959)
– Angelo Viggiani’s manuscript (Cod. 10723)
– Captain Peloquin’s manuscript (Ms. KB.73.J.39)
– The 1443/Gotha version of Talhoffer (Ms. Chart. A. 558)
– The Hague manuscript of Salvator Fabris (Ms. KB.73.J.38)
– Maister Liechtenawers Kunstbuech (Cgm 3712)
– Antonius Rast’s Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt Nr. 82)
– The Copenhagen manuscript of Salvator Fabris (Ms. GKS 1868/r)
As well as purchasing manuals, there are plans to use some of the funds to help director Michael Chidester appear and lecture at more large events, to promote outreach about manual research.
Chidester commented in a Facebook post at the end of the fundraiser, “Really, this is more funding than we ever thought we’d have. I promise that none of it will go into the HEMAA Zeppelin fund, and we’ll try to use it as wisely as possible to continue bringing the treatises to the masses. Doubtless new treatises will come to light over the next year and new scans will become available, and we’ll be there to take full advantage when that happens. Thank you very much for all your generosity in helping us keep the Wiktenauer going, and to keep it growing.”